(第 29 期)   第十五卷第一期   2020 年 12 月 31 日出刊

癌症病患資訊迴避行為之探討

A study of information avoidance behavior of cancer patients

本文關鍵字:癌症病患癌症歷程資訊迴避行為健康資訊質性研究Cancer patientsCancer journeyInformation avoidance behaviorHealth informationQualitative research

本文摘要

在癌症歷程中,病患所獲得的資訊關係到病患所做的決策。但許多研究指出,並不是所有的癌症病患都會積極找尋資訊,有些病患在癌症歷程中會出現資訊迴避行為,而迴避資訊會對病患造成負面影響,也可能增加醫療費用。多年來,癌症已成為國人十大死因之首,對國人的健康福祉影響甚鉅,因此,瞭解癌症病患的資訊行為是一個重要的研究課題。本研究以我國癌症病患為對象,探討癌症病患在癌症歷程中的資訊迴避行為,迴避哪些類型的資訊及其來源,以及迴避相關資訊的原因和方式。
本研究採用深度訪談法,訪談 15 位經歷診斷、治療、復原三個階段的病患。本研究發現無論是哪種癌症類型的受訪者皆有資訊迴避行為。對癌症的恐懼、癌症的不確定性、相關資訊複雜,以及拒絕改變生活型態,是造成癌症病患迴避資訊的主要原因。生存率及死亡率、復發率,以及治療副作用是受訪者較常迴避的癌症相關資訊主題。與其他來源相較,受訪者較少迴避來自醫生的資訊。雖然有些受訪者本人迴避來自醫生的資訊,但會藉由資訊代理人(如,家人)接收醫生提供的資訊。本研究也發現,當癌症病患作為資訊提供者時,病患會迴避提供本身的癌症資訊予家人或親友。本研究建議,在醫病的溝通中,醫生及相關衛教人員,給予病患充分、適當及明確的說明,協助病患瞭解資訊,再加上適當的社會支持,或許可以降低病患的資訊迴避行為。另外,也應該加強病患的健康資訊素養教育,以提升病患獲取及理解資訊的能力。

The information that patients obtained in the cancer journey is important to them in decision-making. However, many studies have pointed out that not all cancer patients actively seek information, and some patients may have information avoidance behavior during cancer journey. Avoiding information may have a negative impact on patients and may increase the cost of medical care cost. Over the years, cancer has become the top ten cause of death and has a huge impact on the health and well-being of people in Taiwan. Therefore, understanding the information behavior of cancer patients is an important research topic. This study aims to explore the information avoidance behaviors of patients in their cancer journey, what types of information they avoided and the information sources they used, and the reasons and methods for information avoidance.
In-depth interviews were employed in this study. Participants were 15 cancer patients who had experienced the stages of diagnosis, treatment, and recovery. This study found that no matter what type of cancer, participants had information avoidance behaviors. The fear of cancer, the uncertainty of cancer, the complexity of related information, and the refusal to change life styles were the main reasons why cancer patients avoid information. Survival and mortality, recurrence rates, and side effects of treatment were the types of cancer information that respondents often avoid. Compared with other sources, respondents seldom avoided information from doctors. Although some participants avoided information from doctors themselves, they would receive information provided by doctors through information agent (such as family members). This study also found that when cancer patients acted as information providers, patients would avoid providing their own cancer information to family members, relatives and friends. Doctor-patient communication plays an important role in the information avoidance behavior of cancer patients. This study suggests that doctors and other medical professionals should give patients adequate, appropriate and clear explanations to help patients understand cancer-related information. Meanwhile, appropriate social support may also reduce patient the occurrence of information avoidance behavior. In addition, health information literacy education for patients should also be strengthened to improve patients ability to obtain and understand information.
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